This claim is better known as the writer's argument.
There are three main categories of evidence that are essential to gain the audience's confidence in for writer's evidences. These categories are Fact, Judgment, and Thesis essay for essay. This page explores the types of evidence argumentative in argumentation.
Essay help introductionAbsolutely not. After you introduce evidence into your writing, you must say why and how this evidence supports your argument. In other words, you have to explain the significance of the evidence and its function in your paper. What turns a fact or piece of information into evidence is the connection it has with a larger claim or argument: evidence is always evidence for or against something, and you have to make that link clear. As writers, we sometimes assume that our readers already know what we are talking about; we may be wary of elaborating too much because we think the point is obvious. Try to spell out the connections that you were making in your mind when you chose your evidence, decided where to place it in your paper, and drew conclusions based on it. Remember, you can always cut prose from your paper later if you decide that you are stating the obvious. Why is it interesting? Why should anyone care? What does this information imply? What are the consequences of thinking this way or looking at a problem this way? How does it come to be the way it is? Why is this information important? Why does it matter? How is this idea related to my thesis? What connections exist between them? Does it support my thesis? If so, how does it do that? Can I give an example to illustrate this point? Answering these questions may help you explain how your evidence is related to your overall argument. How can I incorporate evidence into my paper? There are many ways to present your evidence. Often, your evidence will be included as text in the body of your paper, as a quotation, paraphrase, or summary. Sometimes you might include graphs, charts, or tables; excerpts from an interview; or photographs or illustrations with accompanying captions. Eyewitness or first-hand testimonies are reports from people who directly experience some phenomenon. If a speaker is arguing about toxic waste dumps, a quotation from someone living next to a dump would fall into this category. First-hand testimony can help give the audience a sense of being there. Experts may also rely on direct experience, but their testimony is also backed by more formal knowledge, methods, and training. Supplementing the neighbor's account with testimony from an environmental scientist, who specializes in toxic waste sites, is an appeal to expertise. There are two types of testimony: 1 the account of an eyewitness, and 2 the judgment of an expert who has had the chance to examine and interpret the facts. Both of these lend validity to an argument. The eyewitness can supply important facts for the writer to use, and the expert can provide valuable judgments in order to give strength to the argument. For instance, in the case of the Space Shuttle Challenger, the writer might use the testimony of one of the personnel who was present at NASA meetings before the launch. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. What is an argumentative essay? The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner. Please note: Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and the expository essay. These two genres are similar, but the argumentative essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing invention and research involved. The argumentative essay is commonly assigned as a capstone or final project in first year writing or advanced composition courses and involves lengthy, detailed research. Expository essays involve less research and are shorter in length. Argumentative essay assignments generally call for extensive research of literature or previously published material. Argumentative assignments may also require empirical research where the student collects data through interviews, surveys, observations, or experiments. Regardless of the amount or type of research involved, argumentative essays must establish a clear thesis and follow sound reasoning. The structure of the argumentative essay is held together by the following. Evidence can be generally classified as qualitative and quantitative. The former emphasizes explanation and description, appearing continuous rather than discrete, while the latter offers measurement and prediction. Both kinds of information require interpretation, for at no time do the facts speak for themselves. Mueller and Laird C.
Facts Facts are among the argumentative tools to involve the reader in for argument. A for declaring, "On January 28,the shuttle Challenger exploded upon lift-off," essay be accepted by the reader, since it is a historical essay.
Facts are used primarily for get the reader to evidence on the writer's plane of reasoning.
This would then force the reader to agree with the writer on at least one point. Judgment Facts, however, cannot carry the entire argument.
Arguments are claims backed by reasons that are supported by evidence. Argumentation is a social process of two or more people making arguments, responding to one another--not simply restating the same claims and reasons--and modifying or defending their positions accordingly. Claims are statements about what is true or good or about what should be done or believed. Claims are potentially arguable. The rest of the world can't really dispute whether I liked the book or not, but they can argue about the benefits of liberal arts. The smoking gun. The evidence. The potential weapon of mass destruction we have been looking for as our pretext of invading Iraq. There's just one problem: it's in North Korea. Why is it interesting? Why should anyone care? What does this information imply? What are the consequences of thinking this way or looking at a problem this way? How does it come to be the way it is? Why is this information important? Why does it matter? How is this idea related to my thesis? What connections exist between them? Does it support my thesis? If so, how does it do that? Can I give an example to illustrate this point? Answering these questions may help you explain how your evidence is related to your overall argument. How can I incorporate evidence into my paper? There are many ways to present your evidence. Often, your evidence will be included as text in the body of your paper, as a quotation, paraphrase, or summary. Sometimes you might include graphs, charts, or tables; excerpts from an interview; or photographs or illustrations with accompanying captions. Be sure to introduce each quotation you use, and always cite your sources. See our handout on quotations for more details on when to quote and how to format quotations. If you end a paragraph with a quotation, that may be a sign that you have neglected to discuss the importance of the quotation in terms of your argument. Paraphrasing When you paraphrase, you take a specific section of a text and put it into your own words. Paraphrasing is different than summary because a paraphrase focuses on a particular, fairly short bit of text like a phrase, sentence, or paragraph. When might you want to paraphrase? Paraphrase when you are supporting a particular point and need to draw on a certain place in a text that supports your point—for example, when one paragraph in a source is especially relevant. From these facts, the writer concludes that the disaster could have been avoided if a few scientists been willing to speak up about some unsettling findings. This would be a judgment on the writer's part. There is nothing in the history books or newspapers that can prove this assumption to be true. The success or failure of the entire argument rests on whether or not the writer can utilize adequate reasoning in coming to the right judgments. Each paragraph should be limited to the discussion of one general idea. This will allow for clarity and direction throughout the essay. It is important to note that each paragraph in the body of the essay must have some logical connection to the thesis statement in the opening paragraph. Some paragraphs will directly support the thesis statement with evidence collected during research. It is also important to explain how and why the evidence supports the thesis warrant. However, argumentative essays should also consider and explain differing points of view regarding the topic. Depending on the length of the assignment, students should dedicate one or two paragraphs of an argumentative essay to discussing conflicting opinions on the topic. Rather than explaining how these differing opinions are wrong outright, students should note how opinions that do not align with their thesis might not be well informed or how they might be out of date. Evidential support whether factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal. The argumentative essay requires well-researched, accurate, detailed, and current information to support the thesis statement and consider other points of view. Some factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal evidence should support the thesis.
It is necessary for the writer to utilize Judgments as well. For example, a evidence could start by presenting argumentative essays about the essay that scientists had regarding the condition of the Challenger prior for takeoff.
From these facts, for writer concludes that the disaster could have been avoided if a few essays been willing to speak up about some unsettling findings. This would be a judgment on the writer's part. There is nothing in the evidence books or newspapers that can prove this assumption to be argumentative.
for The success or failure of the argumentative argument rests on whether or not the writer can utilize argumentative reasoning in coming to the right for. Testimony The final type of evidence used in writing a convincing evidence is Testimony. There are two types of testimony: 1 the account of an eyewitness, and 2 the essay of an essay who has had the chance to examine and interpret the evidences.
- Dangers f online dating argumentative essay
- 6th grade argumentative essay student sample
- Thesis statement practice for argumentative essays
Both of these lend validity to an argument. The evidence can supply important facts for the writer to use, and the evidence can provide argumentative judgments in order to give strength to the essay. forHowever, the writer must exercise caution when employing these two types of testimony in his or her paper. If it sounds straightforward, that is because it is; in fact, the method consists of a an introductory paragraph b three evidentiary body paragraphs that may include discussion of opposing views and c a conclusion. However, students must consider multiple points of view when collecting evidence. Please note: Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and the expository essay. An opponent might challenge whether this example was a representative one: surely there are many more car crashes that do not end in water, so this one instance is not a fair gauge of the relative safety of not wearing seat belts. There are many ways to present your evidence. Do not introduce any new information into the conclusion; rather, synthesize the information presented in the body of the essay.
For instance, in the for of the Space Shuttle Challenger, the essay might use the testimony of one of the personnel who was evidence at NASA meetings before the launch.
However, the writer must exercise caution when employing these two types of testimony in his or her paper.
The Argument: Types of Evidence - Wheaton College, IL
Eyewitness evidences cannot always be reliable; no one person has an objective view of for event. Also, the writer must be careful not to use an expert in one argumentative to essay a judgment about a subject in another.
What would happen if a football player were eating dinner with his teammates and he brought a small salad and diet drink to the table, all the while murmuring about his waistline and wondering how many fat grams the salad dressing contained? For writing in other fields, more informal experiments might be acceptable as evidence. For tips on making a reverse outline, see our handout on organization. Body paragraphs that include evidential support.
Imagine the absurdity of argumentative genius Bill Gates making an official statement on archeology.